The Checklist Manifesto Book By Atul Gawande Summary

Because Checklist users like Aviation and Building
construction Industries have proved that.

That how much benefits
of making the checklist.

Let’s understand it
with an example.

In 1935,

Us airforce called aeroplane manufacturers
for flight testing for his new aircraft.

In which “Boing: Model-299” aircraft was many
times more powerful than army requirements.

For testing Model-299,

US airforce send their most experienced
and highly trained pilot “Major Ployer P. Hill”.

But an accident happened like that

The plane crashed a few
seconds after takeoff.

and in that pilot, P. Hill died,

after coming investigation report,

there was no fault in-plane,

but the main reason for the plane crash
was a small mistake of the pilot.

Pilot P. Hill, Instead of a highly
trained and experienced person,

He forgot to release the elevator and
the radar control new locking mechanism.

And due to this fault,
he lost his life.

After this accident,

Investigation teams,
researchers and engineers

gathered together and thought to
implement a simple but very powerful strategy.

That was to see the checklist
before takeoff the plane.

Because of this simple approach,

US airforce, to that same
Model-299 aeroplane

flown for more than 26 lakhs
kilometres without any accident.

In most cases,

there are mainly two
reasons for failing.

  1. Ignorance and 2. Ineptitude

Ignorance means the things
of which we have no knowledge.

and it is obvious to fail in that.

And the second reason for
which the plane crashed.

and the pilot died.

that was Ineptitude.

Means instead of having knowledge,
inability to apply it in the real world.

In today’s world, we have a lot
of knowledge and information.

So the reason for failing due
to Ignorance will be very rare.

But most of the time we fail due to Ineptitude means
not applying our knowledge in the real world.

Instead of having experience
of many years.

Some professional makes
mistakes in their work.

And due to the mistakes of some
professionals, many people die.

The Author Atul Gawande is
a public health researcher and surgeon.

Who says that whether
you are in any industry.

If you want to reduce avoidable
human error and mistakes.

Then make a checklist.

Because humans are flawed
and inconstant creatures by nature.

We haven’t made for discipline,
we made for novelty, excitement, and creativity.

So we need a checklist to
install discipline in ourselves.

There are mainly three types
of problems in the world.

Simple, Complicated and Complex.

Simple problems mean
cooking food by knowing recipes.

In which chances to get success is
100% by understanding a little bit.

Complicated problems means
sending a rocket to the moon.

We can divide it into simple problems,

But there are no
straightforward recipes that,

if you do this then the
mission will succeed.

While complex problems
means raising a child.

If you raised a child then it doesn’t give any experience
that you will easily raise another child.

Because every child is unique.

Means the outcomes of
complex problems are uncertain.

Instead of advanced technology today,

Many people die during surgery
due to mistakes of doctors.

In which most deaths are
due to avoidable human errors.

Like not washing hands before surgery.

Not reserved enough blood
of patience’s blood group.


The author believes that due to these avoidable
human errors, losing many lives is not true.

So for the solution, the author researched
two complex and safe industries of the world.

Aviation industry and
Building Construction Industry.

In the construction industry,
the building failure rate is 0.00002%.

Means out of 50,000 structures
only 1 structure maybe collapse.

And in the Aviation industry, the probability
of death is only 1 out of 29.4 million.

Both industries have a track
record of excellent safety.

Because both industries
follow a checklist.

In Construciton indusry,

Structural engineers who
had made many structures,

and instead of excellence mastery,

whenever they start
foundation and construction,

Then follow the checklist.

By which nothing gets missed.

Instead of more than thousands
of hours of flying experience,

Pilots follow the checklist.

Because both industries have understood
the uncomfortable truth of human nature.

That no matter how much intelligent
and experience person we are.

Sometimes we forgot small
and important steps.

Because our mood
is not always fine.

And by our bad mood.

and get loss of others or ourself,

it is better to follow the checklist.

The checklist is like a net.

That helps us to deliver pure and constant work
by filtering our mental and attention flows.

The checklist makes the aviation and construction
industries responsible and professional.

Because no matter how much
familiar with their job.

they follow the checklist.

Atul Gawande, by knowing the benefits of the checklist
from these two industries, also applied it in the hospital.

and after using it for 3 months continuously
death rate reduced very much.

Because before the surgery of patience,
the nurse sees every item on the checklist.

And after cross-checking,
she ticks it with a pen.

And there were as simple
items in the list that,

the patients who have surgery,

that the same person is on the table,

Doctors included such
things in the checklist,

that before starting surgery
in the operating room,

everyone introduces themselves
by their name and work.

Researchers tell this as an
“activation Phenomenon”.

If people allow say before
starting the work,

then their sense of
participation increases.

That makes strong to
their teamwork & responsibility.

Because those who know the names of
each other are very comfortable in talking.

Venture Capitalist &
Angle Investors also,

before investing their
money in any company,

by following the checklist,
they know everything about that company.

What mistakes that
company had done in past.

What they have learned
from that and implemented.

and what is their market in future,
who are the competitors etc?

A successful angel investor tells,

People usually ask them, that

how do you predict precisely?

This company will grow in future.

And when they answer that ‘ I make
checklists ‘ then people think it like a joke.

Even high-profile restaurants
also follow a checklist.

They make a checklist
for every customer.

Whenever they get an order, then they
take out a print and send it to the kitchen.

In which, ordered item, table number, sheet number,
and customers suggestions are seen.

Whether they have food allergies.

and start preparing
food according to that.

It is important to know
the benefits of the checkist.

But making and using
it is the most important.

The reasons to implement the checklist
are to improve Safety, Consistency, and Efficiency.

So to make this type of checklist,
we have to follow some points.

  1. Identify the area of opportunity.

Where you want to implement
your checklist, first identify that.

Because in all business some processes regularly
repeat on daily, weekly and monthly basis.

And due to the tight dateline,
busy schedule, and heavy clients load,

It is obvious to forget small tasks.

So to run the whole process smoothly.

Implement a checklist
where it is needed more.

The checklist can be
used in two ways.

One for Reminder and
the Second for Learning.

If you are a beginner then
you can use a checklist for learning.

That will guide your step by step.

And if you are an expert, then
you can use it for your reminder by a tick mark.

  1. Define a clear pause point.

Decide a moment, when you can
confirm things by seeing the checklist.

In every checklist, there should be a clear trigger
means reminder of location, routine and action.

That tells you to complete
the checklist by pausing.

Like car mechanics see
a checklist two times.

One after service starts and
one after service is complete.

Everything is completed or not.

The pilot uses a checklist
before takeoff the plane.

Then that is the
“Pause” point for them.

You also define a clear “Pause” point,
when you will use a checklist.

  1. Checklist: Short -Speedy – Concise.

The checklist should be tested
and practical in the real world.

Checklists look matter the most.

So the items written in that should be
clutter-free and in easy language.

Make the checklist short and add
clear items that are the most important.

Whether you are in any field.

If the important project,
critical decision, grocery shopping,

or before starting any simple,
complex or complicated work.

By using the checklist, you will give
high-quality work consistently.

That will make you
different from others.

These are all things, I have told you from
Atul Gawande’s book “The Checklist Manifesto”.

That I liked so much.

If you want to read then
the link is given in the description.

At Last, I will tell you that,

To avoid minor mistakes.

Make Checklist.

Because I have listened somewhere.

People stumble not from
mountains but with stones.

Thank You.